There are several reasons people might be looking for substitutes for dairy. Here are some of the more common ones:
The good news is there are plenty of substitutes for all the major dairy foods, including the seven below.
Milk Nutritionally speaking, milk is rich in protein, carbs and calcium.
In fact, 1 cup (237 ml) of whole milk provides 146 calories, 8 grams of fat, 8 grams of protein and 13 grams of carbs.
Plant-based milk alternatives can be made from legumes (soy), cereals (oats, rice), nuts (almond, coconut), seeds (flax, hemp) or other grains (quinoa, teff).
Some products are fortified with calcium and vitamin D to make them similar to dairy milk, while others are not. Certain alternative milks may also be fortified with vitamin B12.
Many of these nondairy milks also have added sugars to enhance their taste, although most brands offer an unsweetened version.
Some nondairy milks are sold in the refrigerated section, while others are shelf stable. Below are some of the most common substitutes, along with their basic nutrition info for 1 cup of the “original” versions:
Yogurt is made by adding live active bacterial cultures to milk in order to ferment it. These “good” bacteria help promote a healthy gut.
Plain yogurt is an especially versatile food.
In addition to being a breakfast and snack food, it can be used in salad dressings, dips and marinades, or to accompany meat and roasted vegetable dishes.
One cup (236 ml) of whole-milk yogurt provides 149 calories, 8 grams of fat, 9 grams of protein and 11 grams of carbs.
Some types of yogurt, such as Greek yogurt, are higher in protein, while flavored yogurts are generally higher in carbs from added sugar.
As with nondairy milks, substitutes for yogurt are made from nuts, seeds, coconut and soy, and are made by adding probiotic bacteria.
Although nutrition content can vary widely based on brand, here’s a general comparison of the different nondairy yogurt alternatives. These are all based on 6 ounces of the “plain” flavor.
Since nutritional composition can vary greatly between brands, be sure to read the label if you’re looking for a specific amount of carbs, fat or protein.
Dairy cheese tends to fall into two main categories: soft and hard.
It’s made by fermenting cow, goat or sheep milk with bacterial cultures, then adding an acid or rennet to the mixture.
This causes the milk proteins to coagulate and form curds. Salt is then added and the curds are shaped, stored and possibly aged.
Nutritionally, dairy cheese generally delivers protein, calcium and fat — plus sodium. Some cheese varieties are higher in sodium than others.
It’s easier to replicate the texture and even the flavor of soft cheese.
You can find soy- and nut-based versions of cream cheese, as well as a dairy-free, gluten-free and soy-free versions made from a blend of vegetable oils, tapioca starch and pea protein isolate.
You can also make homemade cream cheese or soft crumbly cheese using cashews, macadamia nuts, Brazil nuts or almonds.
And if you’re simply trying to mimic the texture of cottage and ricotta cheeses, then you could use crumbled soft tofu as a replacement.
It’s more challenging to mimic the texture, fat content and taste of hard cheese in nondairy form.
Casein is the milk protein that gives cheese the ability to melt and stretch, and food scientists have found it very hard to replicate.
Manufacturers have had to turn to different gums, proteins and fats to try to achieve a similar mouthfeel and melting properties.
Nevertheless, many companies try. Most brands use soy protein or nuts as a base, although there are some soy- and nut-free varieties that are made from vegetable oils mixed with pea starch or pea protein.
Many people find nutritional yeast to be a good flavor substitute for grated Parmesan cheese. As an added bonus, it’s a good source of vitamin B12.
You can also make your own version by processing nuts and nutritional yeast with desired spices. Here’s a recipe to try.
The nutritional differences between nondairy cheese and regular cheese depend on the substitute.
The pretein content is usually lower in the dairy-free alternatives and some brands have up to 8 grams of carbs per ounce (28 grams), whereas dairy cheese rarely has more than 1 gram per ounce.
Processed nondairy cheeses often contain many more ingredients than dairy cheese.
For instance, one brand of nondairy cream cheese uses trans-fat-filled, partially hydrogenated oil and sugar and many other additives, in addition to tofu. These are arguably much worse than regular cream cheese.
However, homemade nut-based cheeses let you swap one whole food for another.
Butter is made by churning cream until it hardens.
It lends fat and flavor to food and is often used as a spread on bread, to dress cooked vegetables or meats, or as a cooking or baking ingredient.
One tablespoon (14 grams) of butter provides 100 calories, 11 grams of fat, 0 grams of protein and 0 grams of carbs.
The many nondairy butter alternatives that currently exist are either made from vegetable oils or coconut.
Some have the same number of calories as cow’s milk butter. Others have more protein or carbs than butter, but this isn’t true across the board.
Nut and seed butters, such as those made from almond, cashew and sunflower seeds, are also options, depending on what you plan to use the butter substitute for.
Here’s how these nondairy butter substitutes stack up nutritionally per tablespoon:
Watch out for many vegetable-oil-based margarines on the market that still contain dairy derivatives, such as whey.
You can also make your own dairy-free butters at home.This one uses a blend of coconut oil, liquid oils and nondairy milk.
Cream is the higher-fat top layer of separated fresh milk.
It can be between 10% to over 40% fat, depending on the type of cream being created: half-and-half, light cream, whipped cream or heavy cream.
In the kitchen, cream is used as a topping for sweet or savory dishes, or as an ingredient in sauces, soups, puddings, custards and even cakes.
Light cream and half-and-half are commonly added to coffee or other beverages.
A tablespoon (15 ml) of heavy cream contains 52 calories, 5.6 grams of fat and less than half a gram each of carbs and protein.
There are many nondairy alternatives to heavy cream and whipping cream, as well as to coffee creamers.
Many nondairy alternatives to cream are made with coconut milk, especially homemade versions.
But similar to dairy-free cheeses and yogurts, some varieties are made with soy, cashews and other nuts, or a blend of vegetable oils.
In general, nondairy creams are lower in calories and fat than the dairy versions. Like dairy cream, most vegan versions have no protein, but a few versions have carbs.
Some dairy-free alternatives are highly processed and may contain undesirable ingredients like high-fructose corn syrup or partially hydrogenated oils, which contain trans fat.
So it may be worth trying the homemade substitutes that are made from whole foods, such as this one made from almonds.
Sour cream is made by fermenting milk with bacteria.
It’s used as a topping, a base for dips and as a moisture-providing ingredient in baked goods.
An ounce (28 grams) of regular sour cream has 54 calories, 1 gram of carbs, 5.5 grams of fat and 0.6 grams of protein.
Nondairy alternatives on the market are generally soy-based, but there’s at least one soy-free brand out there that’s made from a blend of beans, oils and gums.
Some of the alternatives have similar amounts of fat and calories. Others are lighter across the board, with less fat and calories.
As with many of the other substitutes, you can make your own nondairy sour cream using cashews, sunflower seeds or tofu.
Plain nondairy yogurt is also an easy substitute.
A roundup of alternatives to common dairy foods wouldn’t be complete without ice cream.
Interestingly, there are several nondairy ice cream options, including:
Many of the creamy nondairy desserts are dead ringers for dairy ice cream, delivering the same decadence and creamy mouthfeel.
But since some of them are made from plant-based milks, rather than dairy cream and milk, they are often lower in calories and fat. This isn’t true across the board, so make sure to keep an eye on nutrition labels.
The most common kinds on the market are made from soy, almond or coconut milks. You can also find cashew, rice and even avocado ice cream.